Monday, March 2, 2015

Video of the Day #36/2015: Les Rallizes Denudes (10) / Chris Corsano & Joe McPhee / Keiji Haino (18)


Les Rallizes Denudes
Live 1988 - IV


Plus
Chris Corsano & Joe McPhee
Live 2014




Plus
Keiji Haino / Akiko Nakayama
@forestlimit 2014/09/21 




Sunday, March 1, 2015

Video of the Day #35/2015: Les Rallizes Denudes (9) / Motland, Yeh & Corsano / Alain Badiou (15)


Les Rallizes Denudes
Live 1988 - III



Plus
Motland, Yeh, Corsano
Live 2013




Plus
Alain Badiou et son traduction 
de La République de Platon (2012=


Saturday, February 28, 2015

The HNW-Q No.8: Romain Perrot (Vomir)

Anish Kapoor - ‘descent into limbo’ (Kassel, 1992 )

Dear Readers,

I am very proud to present the HNW-Q No.8 featuring Romain Perrot also known as Vomir. I discovered his HNW in 2010 during a lengthy period of research for more recent and more radical forms of free form minimalism than those I have already encountered in the works of Giacinto Scelsi, Luigi Nono, Morton Feldman, Pauline Oliveros, Eliane Radigue, Helmut Lachenmann, James Tenney, John Cage, Walter Marchetti, John Cage and LaMonte Young. My desire for reasearch found further support in my deep interest in ascetic and anti-capitalist forms of thinking that I found at least methodologically embodied in the works of Martin Heidegger, Gilles Deleuze, Jacques Derrida, Meister Eckhart, Lao Tse, Dôgen Kigen and the Desert Fathers (from Ancient Egypt to Edmond Jabès) and also in certain forms of Modern Art represented in the works of Ad Reinhardt, Robert Ryman, Donald Judd and Barnett Newman.

Consequently it was only a question of time for me to discover the works of Romain Perrot (in my case "Renonce" and "Proanomie") that should be read and inscribed in these lines of tradition. Let's say - for the sake of simplicity: his works are post-Cage, post-Noise and post-Duchamp. Sadly, this background of HNW was not seen. The result: the HNW-brand was captured, ruined and nearly destroyed almost over night by brainless nerds with UKW-radios and tape-recorders and equally ill-informed self-proclaimed fanboynerds. Or by the countless others that wanted to pump in more content into HNW. How ridiculous, annoying, pointless and totally pathetic ! Nevertheless Vomir's HNW will remain as an immense and ultra-smart entry in the logbook of essential experimental music and noise (comparable maybe to the inventions of Hijokaidan, Incapacitants or Masami Akita). His HNW is not a petitesse. It is a mature and adult invention: nothing that could have been invented by a teenager. So please keep this in mind, that you have to grow up if you are into negations and negativity, because negations are worthless without (an in depth) knowledge of the negated and affirmations are equally worthless, if they remain unrelated to a well conceived set of negations.(I postpone the writing about Perrot's immense (also still unnoticed) scope of literary allusions that reaches from Hölderlin, Corneille, Céline to Ribemont-Dessaignes and perhaps secretly to Artaud, Bataille, Blanchot and Deleuze).

Yes. Perrot's HNW is radical, but not in the way it was usually perceived. His sounds are radically anti-capitalist, radically anti-communitarian and radically de-capitated. There is no HNW-movement and there will be never one: only disconnected bands of outsiders. His sounds are directed violently against the unconscious mantra of capitalism to dwell, own, consume and destroy. Perrot is consequently enough to fold this mantra repeatedly back against his own invention until there is nothing left to consume or to assume but absolute nothingness. Épater le bourgeois is no longer his point ! He is turning the usual idea of production and consumption upside down. Perrot produces like an anti-productive and anti-expressive factory or demonic force totally cut-off the market desiring to produce a commodity factor of zero and below. He is producing anti-matter (in all senses of this compositum). He is the non-master of anti-matter, of course, but he is very polite and generous as if he is whispering silently in the direction of the sounds: après vous ! The "listeners" are deliberately consumed and virtually destroyed by the sounds. And the sounds remain absolutely indigestible. This makes them look and sound under the capitalist optic at the same time totally useless and absolutely dangerous, because they interrupt und subvert all reasonable ideas of labour and connected ideas of shareholder value and material surplus value and consumption. (Maybe one could relate this to Georges Bataille's idea of an unrestricted economy and expenditure developed in "La notion de depense"(1933) and later in "La part maudite" (1949))

Perrot's HNW is outrageous - it atomizes everything - leaving behind only ashes and scars. His sounds are in a very radical sense non-directional, inaudible, indifferent, self-consuming and inexistent. They annihilate the subject of perception. These sounds are neither related to aesthetics nor to aesthetic judgements or systems. They are rather an excess for, or a collapse for the aesthetical apparatus or the senses themselves. Consequently it is (and should be) equally impossible to be a-part or to be no-part of the HNW-sound (cf. Bataille's idea of the proletariat as a part of no part). If you are still able to discern between sound and self you still have an aesthetic approach to HNW and you are still "listening" ! So even the formulation "I" listen to HNW is a ridiculous contradiction. Experiencing HNW is impossible and has to be a massive counter-experience. Counter-experiences are keeping the asymmetry alive between my conditions for reception and the anhuman or inhuman nothingness or abyssal otherness that appears to me (here !) as "sound".  

Without this radical asymmetry HNW would still be a part of the distractions of the global Kulturindustrie. Any attempt to re-fill HNW with aesthetic contents, intentions, or qualities is not HNW, but popmusic ! Real HNW is anti-aesthetic or better: anti-anti-aesthetic, because it is not related to aesthetical questions at all (e.g. is it loud enough ? is it ugly ? is it nice ? --- these are futile questions asked by idiots !). HNW is virtually in-finite, because it is "beyond" the perceptive horizons and cognitive possibilities of humans. HNW is beyond the programmable duality of expression-impression (cf. the title of his 2012 release Le Mur Bruitiste Est Non Programmable, Il A Une Fonction Heuristique: Il Révèle; Il Ne Représente Pas: Il Présente) This "beyond" could even open new channels for "perception" different to the industrialized programs that aim at a total "proletarianization of the sensibility" (Bernard Stiegler). Something of Perrot's deeply serious anti-anti-aesthetics embodies herself in the black plastic-bag Perrot wears over his head during his anti-performances with his back to the audience or simply lying on the floor. Perrot's "style of performance" as-if-already-dead could be deciphered with the help of Blanchot who once wrote: "Penser comme on meurt: sans but, sans pouvoir, sans unité (...) pensée de chaque côtée, en déséquilibre, en excès de sens et en excès sur le sens - sortie, dehors." And one last remark: only Perrot has the legitimate right to produce serially and almost automatically (maybe like On Kawara's daily paintings). This is his idea - he has invented it - and it will remain his idea.

In a way the photo (of an installation by Anish Kapoor) above visualizes Romain Perrot's initial idea: the desire to re-insert or fold-in a dangerous void in our homes and daily surroundings, that's desperately missing. This void is dangerous, because it is extimate (a neologism coined by Lacan) it is an intimate exteriority, an internal exclusion, or a foreign void at the heart of the familiar. If this void would not be something at the same time intimate and extimate - the void would have no interruptive force. The void has to interrupt "la société de contrôle" (a concept developped by Gilles Deleuze following a syntagma by William Burroughs and Michel Foucault's book "Surveiller et punir"). And in a way, Perrot desperately - but joyfully - seeks for nothing else but an absolute and resolute interruption of our daily, always already corrupted and exploited lifes. In a poem that accompanied his 2010 "master"piece "Renonce" we could or should have read: 

Quand je me retrouve
La solitude
Quand tout sont éloignés
La solitude pénétrante
Je me recroqueville dans le fini
Je me fige
Mon bruit interne me clarifie
Je suis pur

[written by SKG, 
21.2.-27.2.2015]



This is the HNW-Q No.8
brilliantly completed
by Romain Perrot:


The HNW-Q No. 8

[1] I discovered and invented HNW for myself, when I fully let built the sound I had in my head.

[2] The initial radicality of HNW would be preserved, if nothing happens.

[3] HNW is Harsh Noise Wall.

[4] HNW is not to have fun.

[5] I discovered the acronym H.N.W. on the releases from The Rita's label, Militant Walls.

[6] HNW is pure love, hate, magick, sex, witchcraft, giallo, nylon, reclusion.

[7] The sounds of machines are the streets, the futurist's music or from the industrial related culture.

[8] HNW helps the inner self to be revealed.

[9] Monolithic Walls are good experimental music.

[10] The Future of HNW would be no future.

[11] The Death of HNW would be in ecstasy.


[12] HNW should be related to harsh noise to understand it better.

[13] Singularity and Originality in HNW are none.

[14] HNW should be called Static Minimalism, because...

[15] HNW should not be called Static Minimalism, because static does not include necessarily harshness. HNW is no drone.

[16] The permanent repetition of the HNW-Mantra (No ideas, no change, no dynamics, no development etc.) leads to some rules I did put in my first manifesto. But that was not intended to become rules for the genre. I am no guide.

[17] Volume in HNW is of some effect.


[18] Distortion in HNW is a part of it.

[19] My Unconscious is comfortable in HNW.

[20] Narratives, Analogies and Metaphors in HNW are some possibilities.

[21] Time and Space in HNW are some possibilities.

[22] HNW is a possible way to absolute Nothingness.
 

[23] My HNW amplifies my mind.

[24] Minimal Music and Cosmic Drones are other genres of music, and Harsh Noise is the main genre of HNW.

[25] Conceptualism is the bad word of HNW.


[26] The main ingredients of brilliant HNW are static harsh noise.

[27] The purpose and the concept of my HNW are No ideas, no change, no dynamics, no development, in static harsh noise sounds.

[28] The distinction between ANW / HNW is in the harshness of the noise.

[29] The philosophy of HNW can change from one to one.

[30] My first words about HNW were 'static shit'. This is what I called my sounds before I embraced the HNW letters.

[31] My final words about HNW would be not now.


[32] The phrase I would like to add to this questionary is....
 
 Merci beaucoup, Romain !
Visit Romain's blog


Thursday, February 26, 2015

Video of the Day #33/2015: Les Rallizes Denudes (7) / Akio Suzuki (3) / Etienne Balibar (5)


Les Rallizes Denudes
Live 1988


Plus
Akio Suzuki




Plus this talk by
Etienne Balibar
"Can We Say: After the Subject Comes the Stranger?
13.November 2014

Wednesday, February 25, 2015

Trailer of the Day #1/2015: Sans Soleil / Aki Onda & Ken Jacobs (1/2) / Huntsville (1)


Chris. Marker - Sans Soleil (1982)

Plus
Ken Jacobs & Aki Onda



Plus
Aki Onda
Live




Plus
Huntsville "Pond"
Out on Hubro
13.3.2015



Label announcement:
Since Huntsville was established in 2006, the trio has cut its own distinctive musical diamond with impressive integrity. Each new release from the trio is an event. Now, after over a hundred concerts and with a substantial number of releases behind them, they are more distinctive than ever. Huntsville’s music is the result of collective improvisation, and lies at the musical interface between rock, electronic music, free improvisation and a long list of other genres. Reviewers have described the music as “Morricone-esque dreamscapes” and “Americosmische”, and as an “amalgam of Miles Davis, Steve Reich and early Tortoise.”

Huntsville has previously collaborated on concerts and projects with Hanne Hukkelberg, Sidsel Endresen, Wilco’s Nels Cline and Glenn Kotche, and Thurston Moore of Sonic Youth. The trio’s previous release, “Past increasing, future receding”, was recorded in Tomba Emanuelle, a room with exceptional acoustics and a long-lasting echo. The dramatic setting led the band into a darker and more heart-stopping musical landscape than on previous albums. There are still traces of this darker landscape on their fifth album, “Pond”, although this album also showcases new sides of the band. “Pond” is the result of a successful session in the Oslo studio AmperTone with sound engineer Johnny Skalleberg. The album was recorded and mixed in the course of a week, and the band describes the process as very inspiring. Ivar Grydeland plays electric guitar, pedal steel and electronics this time. Ingar Zach has expanded his percussion set-up with timpani, and Tonny Kluften’s distinctive bass playing is given more freedom to stretch out than on the band’s previous albums. Perhaps most striking this time is how clearly the musical personalities of the three different musicians are able to emerge. “Pond” has become a new career highlight from Huntsville. Through four long tracks we encounter a band that is true to its own sound and idiom, but never stands still.
 

Tuesday, February 24, 2015

Video of the Day #32/1015: Kousokuya (1) / Aki Onda (3) / Jacques Aubert sur Lacan (1)


Kousokuya - Dreams Have Gone
Echoes From Deep Underground (2007)


Plus
Aki Onda
Live 2010




Plus
Jacques Aubert
"Lacan matérialiste. Le symptôme psychanalyse, 
les lettres et la politique
2013 

Monday, February 23, 2015

Sounds of the Day #31/2015: Jojo Hiroshige (2) / Hijokaidan (3/4) / Aki Onda & Akio Suzuki (1)


Words are different to sounds in that the images they create are limited. They’re like a two-edged sword – sometimes they can be used effectively, but sometimes they restrict the range of the images employed. When I was young I read Wittengenstein’s “Philosophical Investigations” and that led me to start thinking about the importance of pinning down thought through the medium of language. Escaping into sound because of your own inarticulacy with language, and using sound to express what cannot be expressed in words are two sides of the same equation. – Jojo Hiroshige

Jojo’s music has always been a far more communicative medium than one might imagine from his fearsome reputation as the founder of Dionysian noise extremists Hijokaidan and the home of Japanese independent music, Alchemy Records. Rather than a fingers-in-ears rejection of social interaction, his music has always been created out of collaborative contexts, out of spaces where noise and the flesh of more than one performer can collide, to find and create meanings beyond the normal rules of linguistic interaction. It is the very possibilities of that space beyond words that has led Jojo to continually surround himself with new collaborators. So it’s fitting that Jojo’s release, the final one in the Shokyo Ontei series, should be the only one that turns its back on the relationship of music to a text. Unlike his previous solo releases, where vocals had always played a key role, here Jojo is caught alone with his guitar. Linguistic and social encoding falls away, leaving only the body, the instrument, the will. (
© Jojo Hiroshige and Utech Records.All rights reserved.)
release date: 21.2.2015
limited to 300 copies


Plus Jojo Hiroshige's
Hijokaidan
Untitled




 Plus
Hijokaidan
Live 2014



Plus
Akio Suzuki & Aki Onda




Sunday, February 22, 2015

Video of the Day #30/2015: Les Rallizes Denudés (10) / Aki Onda (1) / Alain Badiou - Jean-Claude Milner (1))


Les Rallizes Denudés
Official VHS 1992
140 min.


Plus 
Aki Onda
Live in Bologna 2014



Plus
Alain Badiou et Jean-Claude Milner
parlent sur politique et philosophie
2013


Saturday, February 21, 2015

Thoughts of the Day #2/2015: Walter Benjamin (4) James Joyce (5) / Alain Badiou (20) / Rie Nakajima (2)

                  


"Telescopage der Vergangenheit 
durch die Gegenwart."
- Walter Benjamin



"When I am dreaming back like 
that I begins to see we're only all telescopes."
- James Joyce 




--------------------------------------------------------------



Plus
Alain Badiou
"Cinema and Philosophy"
A Talk XI/2014






Plus
Rie Nakajima
Live in London 2014

Friday, February 20, 2015

Thoughts of the Day #1/2015: Walter Benjamin (3) / Rie Nakajima - Miki Yui (1/2)

Walter Benjamin (1889-1940)


"Zum Denken gehört ebenso die Bewegung wie das Stillstellen der Gedanken. Wo das Denken in einer von Spannungen gesättigten Konstellation zum Stillstand kommt, da erscheint das dialektische Bild. 

Es ist die Zäsur in der Denkbewegung. Ihre Stelle ist natürlich keine beliebige. Sie ist, mit einem Wort, da zu suchen, wo die Spannung zwischen dialektischen Gegensätzen am größten ist. 

Demnach ist der in der materialistischen Geschichts- darstellung konstruierte Gegenstand selber das dia- lektische Bild. Es ist identisch mit dem historischen Gegenstand; es rechtfertigt seine Absprengung aus dem Kontinuum des Geschichtsverlaufs."

Walter Benjamin, Das Passagen-Werk


Plus
Rie Nakajima 2014



Plus 
Rie Nakajima & Miki Yui





Thursday, February 19, 2015

AUTUMN SPACES #51 / Rie Nakajima (1) / David Cunningham (1/2)


(Where is Tathâgata here and now ? )

Plus the fantastic sound-artist
Rie Nakajima



Plus
Rie Nakajima & 
David Cunningham




Wednesday, February 18, 2015

Video of the Day #29/2015: Junzo Suzuki (2) / William S. Burroughs (4) / Sound Awakener (3/4/5)


Junzo Suzuki 
live in Oslo, Oct 23, 2011



Plus
William S. Burroughs
reads his novel "Junky"





Plus another three examples of 
the Art of this awesome project 
from Vietnam
Sound Awakener



(released 2015)




(released 2014)



(released 2014)


I admire this project's robust, highly concrete, material and "fleshy" soundworlds. At the same time they have an almost zen-like-formed-of-nothingness-pureness and harsh beauty with a really well calculated use of found sounds and sound manipulations. The result are really subtle, little, precious and highly concentrated sound-atoms with terrific textures causing time-space-deformations. Sound-Art at its best ! The project's name is perfectly fitting: Sound Awakener ! There is a german poem containing the line "Es schläft ein Lied in allen Dingen" - "There is a song asleep in all things". Please support this awesome project.

Tuesday, February 17, 2015

Video of the Day # 28/2015: Alain Badiou (20) / Fossil Aerosol Mining Project (2) / Sound Awakener (2)



Alain Badiou
Interview 2013


Plus
Fossil Aerosol Mining Project
"Red fades first" (2013)
released in X.2014





Plus this fantastic project
from Vietnam
Sound Awakener
"September Traveler"
(released in 2015) 




These sounds accompany an exhibition of photographies by Irene Cruz in Berlin, Germany (click here for more). I admire this project's robust, highly concrete, material and "fleshy" soundworlds. At the same time they have an almost zen-like-formed-of-nothingness-pureness and harsh beauty with a really well calculated use of found sounds and sound manipulations. The result are really subtle, little, precious and highly concentrated sound-atoms with terrific textures causing time-space-deformations. Sound-Art at its best ! The project's name is perfectly fitting: Sound Awakener ! There is a german poem containing the line "Es schläft ein Lied in allen Dingen" - "There is a song asleep in all things". Please support this awesome project.

Monday, February 16, 2015

Cloud #55/2013 / Alain Badiou (20) / Sound Awakener (1)


"Where life has not been seen -
how could death be seen !"
  
Plus 
this wonderful Sound-Art project 
from Vietnam called  
"Sound Awakener".


I admire this project's robust, highly concrete, material and "fleshy" soundworlds. At the same time they have an almost zen-like-formed-of-nothingness-pureness and harsh beauty with a really well calculated use of found sounds and sound manipulations. The result are really subtle, little, precious and highly concentrated sound-atoms with terrific textures causing time-space-deformations. Sound-Art at its best ! The project's name is perfectly fitting: Sound Awakener ! There is a german poem containing the line "Es schläft ein Lied in allen Dingen" - "There is a song asleep in all things". Please support this awesome project. This is her release "Hidden" (2014)
 
Plus
this interview with
Alain Badiou
on serbian TV
thankfully it's in french
 
 




Sunday, February 15, 2015

Sounds Reviewed #7/2015: The Quash Wagon Reclusion - A Room with Tempered Walls

Dear Readers, 

the sensational third release by The Quash Wagon Reclusion with the smart title "A Room with Tempered Walls" (self-released on bandcamp in February 2015) gave me the opportunity to re-open my sounds reviewed section after a long hiatus. Read the word sounds both as a verb and a noun. Now I will go on reviewing on a more regular basis. In various formats from lengthy reviews to feverish counter-signatures or groovy freestyles. This depends on the record. The following text was written in a free improvisation in real-time while listening - and I kept the raw character of this review. Although it could have been unfolded in a more systematical manner.




This record is already one of the best records this year. And I write that without the shadow (a little insider joke) of a doubt and without a nano-second of hesitation. This record is a lot at once. A Robert Rauschenberg Metal Sculpture build up as a pile of guitars crashing into each other in realdreamtime. Slomo-Auto-dissecting-"Rock": an Auto-Autopsy of "Rock". A fierce and boiling combination of material-force against the usual material-form - "un système surlinéaire un rhizome au lieu d'un arbre": an aural plane of a generalized "glissando " ("Plan sonore d'un "glissando" généralisée" (cf. Gilles Deleuze, Félix Guattari, Mille Plateaux). The players: where are they ? Maybe sucked in by the instruments themselves - playing themselves totally de-humanized, a guitar playing a guitar ! Performing guitarcrashs like carcrashs: a-subjectal sounds !

A dis- and re-entanglement or welding of guitar(sounds), guitar-(k)no/t/d/s and nodes: the shaking of metal sculptures like Harry Bertoia's, but this time weirdo-electrified. As if ONE-SOUND - Guitars-in-Coma; or guitars bend by the curvature in time/space (= a soundspace ?) - or vice versa time/space being bend by the sheer mass (a sheer hellish miasma) of guitars, drums etc. Julio Estrada's Pieces for Stringquartet meet Iannis Xenakis' percussive glissandi or both hammering the scales into metal: a re-chording and a turning of space-time-articulations up-side down. Where do these pieces start: infinity jazz ? These guitars weren't played with hands. They sound almost automatic like in Nancarrow's Studies for Player Piano. Maybe these musicians are pulling the strings while hanging on the ceiling like spidermen (yes a plural, my dear !) or the strings played like a spider’s web - causing vibrating pluriverses like in string-theory. Drums are played like percussive fretboards in the background.

A me(n)tal-machine-music: translating electroacoustics - acousmatics - minimal electronics (Deleuze about the syntheziser) i
nto stochastic guitarmusic. The morphing of guitarsounds with guitars losing their identity playing themselves all along like samplers ? What is a guitar, anyway ? For example, sometimes accordion-sounds pop-up and re-morph back into "guitar"-sounds. Been thinking of Morton Feldman's method in his lengthy Stringquartet 2: changing the character of static pitches by introducing new playing techniques or mere repetitions. This is a Dream-Building or a dream building: Kevin's drum(m)s aufgehoben Or Cut(t)s Derek(tly) into Bailey's Quiet North...


SKG, 15.2.2015

The Quash Wagon Reclusion 
"A Room with Tempered Walls"
(released on bandcamp, 9. Febr. 2015) 


Highest possible recommendation !
(10/10 Admiration points)

Saturday, February 14, 2015

ICE and SNOW #46 / Alain Badiou - Quentin Meillassoux (1) / Julio Estrada (1/2)


(Frozen - like irrelevant thoughts !)



Plus
Alain Badiou & Quentin Meillassoux
about Mallarmé (2014)


Alain Badiou et Quentin Meillassoux dialoguent autour du Coup de dés de Mallarmé, au Théâtre Toursky, à Marseille. Dernière partie de la première rencontre de l’Evénement Badiou au cœur de Marseille : "Vers une discipline des conséquences". Soirée conçue par Alt(r)a Voce dans le cadre de l'Université populaire, et présentée par Florence Pazzottu.


Plus two interviews with one of the most important composers
of our time Julio Estrada



Friday, February 13, 2015

Video of the Day #27/2015: Jean-Luc Marion (9)





Jean-Luc Marion - Is the Gift possible ?
A two part conference held in Ohio 2013


Do yourself a favour and skip the really horrible and incredibly stupid intro ! Never ever heard such mediocre ruminations before !

[SKG] 




Thursday, February 12, 2015

Videos of the Day #26/2015: Jean-Luc Marion (8) / Nonhorse (1/2) / Alain Badiou (19)

Jean-Luc Marion - The Unconditioned -- God
Conference in Glasgow 2013


Plus 
the awesome 
tape-manipulations
by Nonhorse 
(G. Lucas Crane/ Aki Onda)
and its fabrication




Plus this soundcloud
 of Nonhorse




Epic collaboration set between G Lucas Crane and Aki Onda. Double tape diary unforgotten memory set. Like watching two simultaneous versions of Krapps Last Tape performed in the unspool room at sony headquarters. DEEP TAPE COLLAGE. Live performance at The Stone in New York City, September 9th 2012. Record this track onto a tape and walk around a city starting at a street fair for full effect.


Plus
Alain Badiou
"Vers une discipline des conséquences" : 
théâtre, poésie, philosophie (2014) 


"Vers une discipline des conséquences" : théâtre, poésie, philosophie. Première partie de la rencontre du 8 octobre 2014 au théâtre Toursky (soirée d'ouverture de l'Evénement Badiou au coeur de Marseille, conçue par Alt(r)a Voce et animée par Florence Pazzottu dans le cadre de l'Université populaire).